The literal sense.
- Intended scope.
know what the human author wanted to say before we can come to
any conclusions as to what God is telling us.
texts we have to discern the teaching by analysing the
literary form the scriptural author is using..
not ascribe statements or assertions to a biblical author
which lie outside his intended scope.
to distinguish substantial statements by the author from
rationalizations and popular reasonings in which he expresses
his own human opinions.
To understand the Gospels correctly we need
to know the way in which the Gospels came about:
through oral catechesis
to the composition of the Gospels of Matthew,
- Introduction to ‘Gospel’
(name, date, inspiration, biographies, written copies,
- Jesus Christ (prophetic teaching,
images, conflicts, rabbinical style)
- Oral and written traditions
Paul’s use of oral
- Matthew’s Gospel (author, sources, structure, community, Jewish traits,
themes of authority,
- Mark’s Gospel (author, structure, character, themes of Peter,
- Luke’ Gospel (author, structure, character, hellenist milieu,
themes of joy,
meal, business, Jerusalem, witness, women,
Luke's portrait of Mary,discipleship, women’s ministry)
- John’s Gospel (in
- Interpretation (in
Women in Old
1000 BC - 30 AD
in society and religion
Regarding rabbinical teaching on women:
- Rabbinical Tradition
on the Role of Women—Hayim G. Perelmuter in 'Women
and Priesthood: Future Directions'
- "The Role of Women in
Judaism", by Jonathan Sachs, in 'Man, Woman, and
- "Gender and the Nature of the
Divine", by Judith Ochshorn, in 'The Female
Experience and the Nature of the Divine'
- "Sex Roles and the Relation of
Power to Gender", by Judith Ochshorn, in 'The Female
Experience and the Nature of the Divine'
- "The Relation of Gender to
Participation in Cult", by Judith Ochshorn, in 'The
Female Experience and the Nature of the Divine'
Jesus Christ and women
28 - 30 AD
Jesus did not tackle male dominance directly.
established a new priesthood that includes a radical openness
Women were present at the Last Supper
Read: Jesus from an
Ecofeminist Perspective, by Ivonne Gebara.
On the Last Supper:
- ‘Meals of the Community’, by
Suzanne Tunc, from Des Femmes aussi Suivant Jésus,
Paris 1998, pp 69-77
- ‘Bible, liturgy concur: women
were there’, by Marjorie Reiley Maguire in 'National
Catholic Reporter', June 5, 1998
- Do This in Memory of Me
by Irene McCormack in 'Compass Theology Review'
25 (1991) no 4, pp. 33-35
- The Women (and Mary?) at Luke's
Supper by Tony Cassidy CSSR Talk given to the
Ecumenical Society of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Canterbury,
29th October 2007
- Priesthood and Jesus' Jewish
inspirationby Aaron Milavec (some extracts from "Salvation
Is from the Jews" (John 4:22): Saving Grace in Judaism and
Messianic Hope in Christianity, Liturgical Press, July
On appointing only men among the twelve apostles:
Scriptural Argument in Ordinatio Sacerdotalis’,
Bijdragen 62 (2001) pp. 129 - 142;
- ‘The twelve apostles
were men - -’, I. Raming,
Orientierung 56 (1992) pp. 143-146.
- ‘Did Christ conform to
social myth?’, J. Wijngaards, DCROWP 1986, pp.
- ‘The Ministry of Women
according to the New Testament’, E. M. Tetlow, WMNT
1980, ch. 3.
- ‘The Role of Women
According to Jesus and the Early Church’, R. J. Karris,
WPFD 1978, pp. 47-57.
- ‘The Biblical Evidence’,
Ch. Evans, YWP 1978, pp. 16-29.
- Biblical Commission
Report, ‘Can Women Be Priests?’
- ‘The Twelve’, E.
Schüssler Fiorenza, WP 1977, pp. 114-121.
- ‘Did Jesus Exclude Women
from Priesthood?’, S. M. Schneiders, WP 1977,
- ‘Pro and Con: The
Ordination of Women in the New Testament’, R. H.
Fuller, TNTO 1976, pp. 1-11.
- ‘Christ, Revelation, and the
Ordination of Women’, A. A. Vogel, TNTO 1976,
- ‘The Authority of
Scripture’, P. Lakeland, CWBP 1975, pp. 31-46.
- ‘Women and Ministry’,
Theological Studies 36 (1975) pp. 660 - 687.
- ‘Holy Scripture’, H.
van der Meer,
WPCC 1973, pp. 10-45.
Women in the Early Apostolic
30 - 80 AD
Paul endorsed the fundamental equality in Christ of
women and men.
Women took part in the Church's apostolate.
Paul asked women to wear a veil in the assembly to forestall
On Specific Pauline texts:
Women among the disciples of
80 AD - 120 AD
In a reaction against Gnostics, some local Church
leaders forbid women to speak in the assemblies.
Read on women in the Early Christian Church:
On Ephesians 'Bride and Bridegroom'